Guideline Ten | Clear Goals

10. Clearly articulated expectations, goals, learning outcomes and course requirements increase student motivation and improve learning

“Well-expressed statements of intended learning outcomes help students to identify their own targets, and work systematically towards demonstrating their achievement of these targets.” Race, P. 2001, The Lecturer’s Toolkit: A Practical Guide to Learning, Teaching and Assessment, Kogan Page, London, p. 21.

It is indisputable that, from the students’ perspective, clear standards and goals are a vitally important element of an effective educational experience. Lack of clarity on these points is almost always associated with negative evaluations, learning difficulties, and poor performance.” Ramsden, P. 1992, Learning to Teach in Higher Education, Routledge, London, p. 127.

Students need to be on the inside of the logic of the course, believing in its rationale, not tagging along, feeling bewildered and jumping through hoops.” Gibbs, G. 1995, Assessing Student Centred Courses, The Oxford Centre for Staff Development, Oxford, p.8.


Toolkit Guideline 10


Online Resources

Intended Learning Outcomes. MIT’s Teaching and Learning Laboratory. link

How to write learning outcomes. Allan Jenkins & Dave Unwin. The National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis. link

Writing and Using Learning Outcomes to Design a Course and Assess Learning. Declan Kennedy, Aine Hyland & Norma Ryan. link 

Guide for busy academics.  Using Learning Outcomes to Design a Course and Assess Learning. Norman Jackson, James Wisdom and Malcolm Shaw. link